This page provides an overview of legal professions in Romania.
In Romania, the following legal professions are practised:
The Romanian Public Prosecution Service includes:
The Superior Council of Magistracy is the central body responsible within the judicial system for regulating the profession of prosecutor. Initial and further professional training for judges and prosecutors is provided by the National Institute of Magistracy, which is a public body with legal personality under the coordination of the Superior Council of Magistracy. The Public Prosecution Service discharges its tasks through prosecutors working in prosecutor's offices. The latter can be found attached to all the courts, with the exception of professional conduct tribunals.
Criminal proceedings carried out by prosecutor's offices attached to courts of appeal, tribunals, or children's and family tribunals
The institutional hierarchy of prosecutor's offices is as follows:
Two separate specialised structures operate within the Prosecutor’s Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice. They are:
Criminal proceedings carried out by prosecutor's offices attached to military courts
Criminal proceedings for criminal offences committed by military personnel are carried out by military prosecutor's offices, which have the legal status of military entities. They are attached to military tribunals, to the Bucharest Military Tribunal or to the Bucharest Military Court of Appeal.
Functional hierarchy of prosecutors
Prosecutors act in compliance with the principles of legality, impartiality and hierarchical control.
Prosecutors act in accordance with the law, to observe and protect human dignity, and defend the rights of individuals.
Prosecutors at each prosecutor's office report to the head of that office, who in turn reports to the head of the hierarchically superior prosecutor's office.
The control to be exercised by the Prosecutor-General of the Prosecutor’s Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the chief prosecutor of the National Anticorruption Directorate and the head prosecutor of the prosecutor’s office attached to the court of appeal over prosecutors under their authority may be performed either directly or through designated prosecutors.
In Romania, there are two categories of prosecutors:
The national categories of prosecutors are the following:
Whenever deemed necessary, ex officio or at the request of the Superior Council of Magistracy, the Minister for Justice may exercise control over prosecutors through prosecutors designated by the Prosecutor-General of Romania, the Chief Prosecutor of the National Anticorruption Directorate, or the Minister for Justice himself/herself, in order to check the following:
This control applies neither to the entire range of measures prosecutors can take over the course of criminal proceedings nor to the corresponding decisions.
The Minister for Justice can ask the Prosecutor-General of Romania or, where appropriate, the Chief Prosecutor of the National Anticorruption Directorate, to report on the activities of prosecutor’s offices and can issue instructions on the measures to be taken in order to prevent and combat crime effectively.
The Prosecutor’s Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice submits annual activity reports to the Superior Council of Magistracy and the Minister for Justice, who in turn presents his/her conclusions on the report to the Romanian Parliament.
The central body within the judicial system responsible for regulating the profession of judge is the Superior Council of Magistracy (CSM). Initial and further professional training for judges and prosecutors is provided by the National Institute of Magistracy, which is a public body with legal personality under the coordination of the Superior Council of Magistrates.
In Romania, judges specialise in the following categories of cases:
The central body responsible for the profession of lawyers is the Romanian National Union of Bar Associations (UNBR), which is a legal person of public interest comprising all bar associations in Romania. It ensures qualified exercise of the right of defence, professional competence and discipline, and the protection of the dignity and honour of lawyers who are members of the union. All Romanian bar associations are members of the Romanian National Union of Bar Associations.
Information on Romanian lawyers is available on the website of the Romanian National Union of Bar Associations.
Yes, access to the database is free of charge.
Under the law, legal advisers may form county-level associations by sector or area of activity and according to their professional interests, or, where applicable, national associations, subject to the law on associations and foundations. One of the professional associations set up in accordance with the law on associations and foundations is the Romanian Order of Legal Advisers (OCJR). It includes all the associations of legal advisers in all counties. Legal advisers may also form other professional associations. The lists of legal advisers by county are available on the individual websites of the OCJR member associations. The links are available on the OCJR website.
In accordance with the law, the Romanian Ministry of Justice has delegated the exercising of notarial services to the National Union of Notaries Public (UNNP). The National Union of Notaries Public is the professional body representing the notaries public, and is responsible for organising the profession of notary public, and defending the professional interests of its members and the standing of this profession. All notaries public are members of this Union. Notaries public are grouped in 15 Chambers of Notaries Public, each of which is attached to a court of appeal.
In Romania, notaries public provide the following legal services:
The Romanian National Union of Judicial Enforcement Officers (UNEJ) is a professional body with legal personality comprising all judicial enforcement officers. It is responsible for preserving the standing and authority of the profession of judicial enforcement officer. Its main mission is to represent and defend the professional interests of its members. Judicial enforcement officers are grouped in 15 chambers, each of which is attached to the relevant court of appeal.
A list of judicial enforcement officers is available on the websites of the Romanian National Union of Judicial Enforcement Officers and the Ministry of Justice. However, the two databases have different structures.
The central body within the judicial system responsible for regulating the profession of clerk of court is the Superior Council of Magistracy (CSM).
The National School of Clerks of Court (SNG) is a public body with legal personality under the coordination of the Superior Council of Magistracy, responsible for providing initial and further professional training for clerks of court.
The Romanian judicial system has several categories of clerks of court:
You can find out more about this professional category in this document .
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