The legal obligation to provide maintenance is the requirement imposed by law on a person to provide another person with the necessary means of subsistence, including for the satisfaction of spiritual needs, and, in the case of the parents’ maintenance obligation to their minor children, the means required for their upbringing, education and professional training.
The maintenance obligation exists between spouses, relatives in the direct line, brothers and sisters and certain other persons specified by law (Article 516 of the Romanian Civil Code).
The maintenance obligation exists between former spouses (Article 398 of the Civil Code). It should not be confused with compensatory consideration or damages.
A spouse who has contributed to the maintenance of the child of the other spouse has an obligation to provide maintenance for the child for as long as that child is a minor, but only if the child’s natural parents are dead, missing or needy (Article 517(1) of the Civil Code). In turn, the child may be obliged to provide maintenance for the person who provided him with such maintenance for 10 years (Article 517(2) of the Civil Code).
The heirs of a person who was obliged to maintain a minor or who provided maintenance without having any legal obligation to do so are bound, depending on the value of the inherited assets, to continue to provide maintenance if the minor’s parents are dead, missing or needy, but only for as long as the person receiving the maintenance is a minor.
The maintenance obligation between parents and children is regulated by Articles 499 and 525 of the Civil Code. Minors claiming maintenance from their parents are regarded as needy if they cannot support themselves on the basis of their work, even if they have assets. However, where the parents are in no position to provide maintenance without endangering their own existence, the family court may agree to the maintenance being provided through the sale of the child’s assets, excluding any essential goods.
The parents are obliged to maintain a child who has reached the age of majority (usually 18 years), if that child is continuing his studies, until the end of his studies, but not after he has reached the age of 26.
The claimant-creditor must apply to the court having jurisdiction in the place of his permanent address or that of the defendant-debtor. The court summons for determining the maintenance allowance may be issued either separately or in the course of proceedings for divorce, determining paternity, exercising parental authority over a minor child or establishing a minor’s permanent address. The court may order, by order of the president of that court, transitory measures valid only until a decision has been issued regarding the substantive proceedings relating to the dissolution of the marriage. The proceedings at first instance comprise several stages. At the written stage, the summons, the complaint and the counterclaim are submitted; precautionary measures such as a lien or distraint may be ordered; and the parties are summoned and the procedural documents sent to them. The oral stage comprises the court hearing, where procedural exceptions may be raised and the evidence processed. This is followed by the deliberation stage and the issuing of the court decision.
In the case of divorce by mutual consent, which can be declared by a notary public, the spouses may agree on all the effects of divorce, including the determination of each parent’s contribution to the cost of the children's upbringing, education, studies and professional training.
In principle, the parties involved in maintenance allowance proceedings may be represented. However, where application is filed for maintenance allowance in conjunction with divorce proceedings, the spouses may be represented in the divorce petition only in certain cases specifically provided for by Article 920 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
Where a separate application is filed for the determination/increase/reduction of the maintenance allowance, the parties may be represented in the conventional way by a lawyer or another representative; where representation is by a non-lawyer, the latter cannot deliver closing oral arguments in the trial. The minor is represented by his legal representative (parent or, exceptionally, another person exercising parental authority). An application in respect of a child having reached the age of majority is lodged by that child in person.
The court with territorial jurisdiction (for the place of residence of either the defendant-debtor or the claimant-creditor) can be determined by reference to the Romanian judicial atlas, which is published on the website of the Ministry of Justice on the courts portal http://portal.just.ro/SitePages/acasa.aspx.
No, because it is not mandatory for the claimant to be represented or assisted by a lawyer.
Applications for the determination or modification of maintenance allowance are exempt from stamp duty. Assistance or representation by a lawyer involves costs, but payment of these is not mandatory. If the party concerned has insufficient income, he may request legal aid to cover the lawyer’s fees or other costs of the trial.
The maintenance is granted according to the needs of the applicant and to the means of the person who is to pay it. In principle, the maintenance is granted in kind and provides full means of subsistence. In the majority of cases, however, the courts in practice determine the maintenance allowance in cash, either as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the debtor’s monthly income (Article 530 of the Civil Code). The maintenance allowance in the form of a fixed amount is adjusted for inflation, by law, on a quarterly basis.
Where the maintenance is owed by a parent, it is set at up to a quarter of that parent’s net monthly income for one child, a third for two children and a half for three or more children. By law, the amount of maintenance owed to children, combined with any maintenance owed to other persons, may not exceed half of the liable person’s net monthly income (Article 529 of the Civil Code).
Where there is any change in the means of the person providing maintenance or the needs of the person receiving it, the family court may, in a new action, increase or reduce the maintenance allowance, or order that its payment be ended, as applicable (Article 531 of the Civil Code).
The maintenance is granted in kind, providing for full means of subsistence and, where appropriate, covering the costs of education, studies and professional training (Article 530 of the Civil Code If the maintenance obligation is not fulfilled voluntarily, in kind, the family court orders that it be paid as a maintenance allowance in the form of cash. The maintenance allowance may be determined either as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the net monthly income of the person obliged to provide maintenance.
The maintenance allowance is paid in regular instalments on dates agreed between the parties or, in the absence of such agreement, on the dates determined by court decision. The parties may agree or, where there are sound reasons for its doing so, the family court may decide, that the maintenance allowance be paid in advance as a lump sum covering the maintenance needs of the person entitled to the maintenance for a longer period of time or for the entire period in which maintenance is owed, provided that the debtor owing the maintenance has the necessary means to meet this obligation (Article 533 of the Civil Code).
The maintenance allowance determined for the minor is paid to the minor’s legal representative.
Since in most cases the maintenance allowance is determined in cash, the most frequent method of enforcement is a distraint on salary (monthly income). Forced sale of the debtor’s movable and immovable property is a less frequent method of enforcement.
As regards the recovery of the maintenance claim, Article 728 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides that only up to half of the debtor’s net monthly regular income may be subject to enforcement for the amounts owed as maintenance. If there are several recovery procedures involving the same amount, the enforceable amount may not exceed half of the net monthly income, regardless of the nature of the claims.
Where the creditor simultaneously files applications for the seizure of several movable or immovable assets whose value clearly exceeds the claim to be paid, the enforcement court may restrict the enforcement to certain assets (Article 701 of the Code of Civil Procedure).
Enforced recovery shall end, for instance, when the obligation indicated in the enforcement order has been met in full and the enforcement fees have been paid; when enforcement cannot be carried out or continued due to the lack of enforceable assets or the impossibility of realising such assets; and when enforcement has been cancelled (Article 702 of the Code of Civil Procedure).
The right to obtain enforcement is subject to a limitation period of three years. An appeal against enforced recovery may be lodged with the enforcement court. The competent court may suspend enforcement until a decision is taken on the appeal against enforced recovery (Article 711 et seq. of the Code of Civil Procedure).
When the enforcement order or the enforced recovery itself has been cancelled, the party concerned has the right to reverse the enforcement by restoring the situation preceding it (Article 722 et seq. of the Code of Civil Procedure).
Under Regulation (EC) No 4/2009, the Hague Convention of 2007 or the New York Convention of 1956, the applicant may submit his application for maintenance through the Romanian Ministry of Justice if the debtor resides in one of the EU Member States that are party to the Hague Convention of 2007 or the New York Convention of 1956.
Romanian Ministry of Justice
17 Str. Apolodor , Sector 5
Directorate for International Law and Judicial Cooperation
(Direcția Drept Internațional și Cooperare Judiciară)
No; the applicant must contact the central sending authority in his country, designated pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 4/2009, the 2007 Hague Convention or the 1956 New York Convention.
The central sending authority of the debtor’s country may subsequently contact Romania’s central receiving authority:
The application is then submitted to the competent court.
The debtor residing abroad can address his request directly, in person or through a lawyer to the Romanian court having jurisdiction for the place of residence of the defendant or the debtor.
The debtor residing abroad can address his request directly, in person or through a lawyer to the Romanian court having jurisdiction for the place of residence of the defendant or the debtor. The details of the competent Romanian court are available on the courts portal http://portal.just.ro/SitePages/acasa.aspx on the basis of the place of residence of the defendant or debtor.
Yes; pursuant to Article 2612 of the Romanian Civil Code, the law applicable to the maintenance obligation is determined under European Union law, i.e. the Hague Protocol of 23 November 2007 on the law applicable to maintenance obligations.
Pursuant to Law No 36/2012 on certain measures necessary for applying certain regulations and decisions of the Council of the European Union and instruments of private international law in the field of maintenance obligations, after receiving an application for maintenance or specific measures, the Ministry of Justice forwards it for settlement to the competent authority or body possessing the personal data, to the competent local bar association, to the Chamber of Judicial Enforcement Officers or, where applicable, to the competent court.
In the case of applications submitted through the central authority, under the terms laid down in Article 46 of the Regulation, free and full legal aid may be granted to claimants of maintenance obligations who have not yet reached the age of 18 or who are continuing their studies, but not beyond the age of 21, and to claimants of maintenance obligations who are vulnerable persons.
The Ministry of Justice sends the applications received from abroad directly to the competent local bar association. The dean of the bar association immediately issues a mandatory and ex officio decision assigning a solicitor. The appointed solicitor requests legal aid, including in the form of payment of the judicial enforcement officer’s fee.
Subsequently, after obtaining an enforcement order, the appointed lawyer asks the court to grant legal aid in the form of payment of the judicial enforcement officer’s fee. The solicitor submits the enforced recovery request, the enforcement order and the decision of the dean of the bar association to the competent local judicial enforcement officer.
Romania has adopted Law No 36/2012 on certain measures necessary for applying certain regulations and decisions of the Council of the European Union and instruments of private international law in the field of maintenance obligations.
The Ministry of Justice has been designated as Romania's central sending authority, which forwards the applications provided for in Articles 53 and 56 of the Regulation. After receiving the required supporting documents from the creditor or the debtor, the Ministry of Justice fills in Part A of the application and may assist the creditor or the debtor in completing Part B of the application.
The Ministry of Justice is the central authority designated to receive applications for specific measures and for maintenance. Once it has received the applications, it sends them for settlement to the competent authority or body possessing the personal data, the competent local bar association, the Chamber of Judicial Enforcement Officers or, where applicable, the competent court.
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