- in Germany: Article 23 of the Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung).
- in Germany:
(a) the presiding Judge of a chamber of the 'Landgericht';
(b) a notary (Notar) in a procedure of declaration of enforceability of an authentic instrument.
- in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Oberlandesgericht.
-in Germany, a Rechtsbeschwerde.
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