Find information per region
A parent with sole custody can lawfully remove a child to another state without the other parent’s consent.
Where both parents exercise joint custody of an underage child, the other parent’s consent is necessary to remove the child to another state. Removal without consent also constitutes a criminal offence under Chapter 154 of the Criminal Code.
A child can be removed to another state without the consent of one of the parents with joint custody on the basis of a relevant judgment by the family court.
In the absence of consent for temporary or permanent removal, a court judgment is required. In the presence of consent, there is no specific document used to grant that consent.
The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective EJN contact point. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. Neither the EJN nor the European Commission accept responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.
Member States in charge of the management of national content pages are in the process of updating some of the content on this website in the light of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. If the site contains content that does not yet reflect the withdrawal of the United Kingdom, it is unintentional and will be addressed.