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National specialised courts


This section provides you with information on the organisation of special courts in Finland.

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Special courts

There are special courts in Finland, the duties of which are provided for in separate statutes. The special courts were set up for cases that cannot be handled by general courts or administrative courts because they require special expertise. The composition of the special courts usually reflects the expertise pertinent to the field in question. The special courts are:

  • The Labour Court
  • The Market Court
  • The Insurance Court and
  • The High Court of Impeachment.

The Labour Court

The Labour Court handles and settles disputes concerning the interpretation of the Employment Contracts Act, the State Civil Servants Contracts Act, the Municipal Civil Servants Contracts Act and the law governing the contracts of civil servants in the employ of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. It also deals with disputes relating to the contracts of State civil servants and the collective agreements of employees.

The Market Court

The Market Court handles matters covered by the Consumer Protection Act, the Consumer Ombudsman Act and the Securities Markets Act. It also deals with disputes concerning marketing and contractual terms falling within the scope of the law on agreements between credit institutions and entrepreneurs, as well as infringements of the Act on Competition Restrictions.

The Insurance Court

The Insurance Court is a special court of administrative law. It functions as the competent court of law for the income security matters falling within its sphere of competence. It handles, among other things, disputes arising from different types of sickness and accident insurance and appeals concerning decisions made by the Pensions Appeal Board, the Accident Appeal Board, the Social Security Appeal Board and the Unemployment Appeal Board.

High Court of Impeachment

The High Court of Impeachment is a special court that hears cases involving charges of unlawful conduct in office brought against members of the Finnish government, Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges and certain senior civil servants. The High Court of Impeachment is convened only when necessary.

Additional information

The website of Finnish courts contains information on the judicial system of Finland. It is a one-stop portal providing information about courts, prosecutors, enforcement authorities and legal aid.

It includes, for example, the latest case law from the courts of appeal and the administrative courts and links to the websites of all courts.

Last update: 30/06/2019

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