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In general, there are no specialised courts in the Czech Republic, though there are specialised chambers in the ordinary courts (for employment cases).
The Constitutional Court is the judicial authority for the protection of constitutionality.
The Constitutional Court hears cases either in full plenary session or as four three-justice panels.
Only a full plenum is entitled to take decisions related to fundamental issues of national and judicial significance. These include, for example, the annulment of an Act of Parliament, the impeachment or incapacitation of a President of the Republic or the dissolution of a political party.
A full plenum is composed of all judges, ten of whom must be present when a decision is taken. Decisions on the following matters require a majority vote of nine judges: an annulment of an Act of Parliament, a decision regarding the impeachment or incapacitation of a President of the Republic, and an adoption of a verdict that is based upon a different legal interpretation of a previous decision made by the court.
Panels of three judges hear all other matters. These include, for example, constitutional complaints by persons or municipalities, electoral or eligibility disputes concerning members of Parliament, and conflicts of competence between central state authorities and local autonomous bodies.
The constitutional court consists of 15 justices. Judges are appointed to a ten-year term of office by the President of the Republic with the consent of the Senate. There is no restriction on reappointment.
The administration of the court is directed by the chair and two vice-chairs. Each justice is served by his/her own staff of legal assistants and a secretary.
Further information may be found onthe Constitutional Court website.
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