If you become a victim of a crime, you can report it to the police or the prosecutor:
There are some crimes for which your consent will be needed in order to start criminal prosecution (e.g. fraud, theft or assault in negligence, threat of spreading a venereal disease).
Your report does not need to have any special form, but it is recommended that you include:
When reporting, you can be represented by a lawyer, in which case you have to attach his/her power of attorney.
If you reside in another EU Member State, you can report the crime to the authorities there.
If you do not speak the Slovak language, you can present your crime report in another language. The police or the prosecutor will have to translate it, if it is in writing, or provide an interpreter, if you report orally.
There is no specific deadline for you to submit a report, apart from the period after which criminal prosecution is no longer possible and which depends on the seriousness of the crime.
You will receive a reference number for your report upon your request.
As a victim, you have your own specific capacity in the criminal proceedings by law and you can join them at any time.
After you report the crime, you can:
In your capacity as a victim, you have the right to provide evidence, but the police and the prosecutor have the legal obligation to prove all aspects of the crime.
As a witness to the crime, you have the following specific rights:
If you are a minor, your crime report may be submitted by your parent or guardian. He/she may also represent you throughout the proceedings.
If you are under 15 years of age and your interview may affect you negatively, you will be interviewed with utmost consideration and your interview will not be repeated, if possible. An education specialist may be present as well as your legal guardian, if his/her presence can be beneficial for the interview. If necessary, technical equipment for the transmission of sound and images will be used. Your personal data will not be disclosed.
The police have a legal obligation to decide whether to pursue your case within 30 days after you submit your report. You have the right to be informed about the development of the case in writing. Specifically, you have the right to be informed about the police decisions to start criminal proceedings and to charge the offender. You will also be informed, if the police decide not to initiate proceedings, which you can appeal before the prosecutor.
Also, at first contact with you, the police have to give you a written list of your rights in the criminal proceedings and a written list of assistance and support organisations. Authorities have to inform you about your rights, including damage compensation opportunities, and assist you in applying them.
You have no specific right to be informed about the arrest of the offender, but you will be informed about his/her release from detention, if he/she will present a danger for you.
If you claim for compensation for the damage caused by the offender, you do not have sufficient resources to cover the expenses for a lawyer and this is necessary for the protection of your interests, you can apply for legal aid. It is provided by a lawyer and paid by the state.
If you are a victim of discrimination, you will be provided legal aid free of charge regardless of your income.
If disclosing your address as a witness will endanger you or your relatives, you may provide your work address or another address, where authorities can officially communicate with you.
You may also be allowed not to provide any other personal data (identity, place of residence, etc.), if that would endanger your or your relatives’ life or health. In any case, your personal data as a victim will never be disclosed to the public.
You may be interviewed, using technical equipment, recording the interview or transmitting sound and image. During such an interview, your voice and appearance can be changed. In exceptional cases, you may benefit from change of identity.
If you are a victim of a terrorist act or a crime, committed by an organised criminal group, and you are in danger as a witness, you may participate in a witness protection programme, including measures of physical security.
If you are a victim of human trafficking, you may benefit from anonymous accommodation.
As a victim of a crime, you will generally be assisted by non-governmental organisations. They can provide you services free of charge in the following areas:
If you are a victim of human trafficking, you can benefit from a special programme for support and protection, including anonymous accommodation, therapy and healthcare.
You can take part in mediation between the offender and yourself during the investigation of the crime. For less serious crimes with a maximum sentence of five years of imprisonment, that can lead to reconciliation, which the prosecutor can approve and consequently terminate the prosecution. You can also, for any crime, participate in reaching an agreement between the defence and the prosecution about the guilt of the offender and the sentence he/she should get.
After the end of the investigation, you have the right to examine the case file and propose new evidence.
The police may decide to move forward with the case or to drop proceedings.
You can appeal against the decision of police to drop proceedings within three days after its announcement to the prosecution. In the appeal, you can demand continuation of the proceedings and provide relevant reasoning.
You can only terminate proceedings, if they concern a crime, for which your consent is needed to start prosecution (e.g. fraud, theft or assault in negligence, threat of spreading a venereal disease). You can withdraw your consent until the moment the appeal court has its final deliberation and the proceedings will not continue.
If you are a foreigner, you have the following specific rights:
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