Summary of the criminal process
The normal stages in the criminal process are as follows:
- The police investigate whether a crime was committed and by whom. They collect evidence.
- Having identified a suspect, the police, if they think it necessary, can arrest the person and question them on the offence.
- If the police think that the suspect may have committed a crime they consult the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) about whether to charge him – that is, make a formal accusation to be tried in court.
- The CPS decides on suitable charges and serves a formal document on the suspect describing the allegation.
- Before the trial, court hearings find out how the accused intends to plead, and check the case is ready for trial.
- The prosecutor presents the evidence at trial. The accused may also present evidence in his defence. Serious cases will be decided by a jury and less serious cases by magistrates.
- After all the evidence is heard, the magistrates or jury declare a verdict.
- If the accused is found guilty, the judge determines the sentence.
- The decision can be appealed
The factsheets give details about these stages in the process and about your rights. This information is not a substitute for legal advice and is intended to be for guidance only.
Role of the European Commission
Please note that the European Commission has no role in criminal proceedings in Member States and cannot assist you. Information is provided in these factsheets about how to complain and to whom.
Click on the links below to find the information that you need
1 - Getting legal advice
2 - My rights during the investigation of a crime
- Investigation and arrest
- Interview and charge
- Court appearances before trial
- Preparation of the case before trial
3 - My rights during the trial
4 - My rights after the trial
- More information about appeal hearings
5 - Road traffic offences
Crown Prosecution Service
Liberty Guide to Human Rights
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