Legal translators/interpreters

If you need to understand and be understood during a hearing held in another Member State or if you need a legal translation of a contract or other legal document, you may wish to find an interpreter or a legal translator.

Introduction

With the increase in mobility and migration within the European Union, there is also a commensurate increase in the number of relationships of all kinds (be they commercial, legal, academic or personal) between citizens of different nationalities, cultures and with different languages. This in turn leads to a wide variety of situations demanding language translation and interpretation services. Since many of these situations must be either sanctioned or witnessed by the authorities (frequently by courts or other legal institutions), it is quite common to require official translations of documents originally written in another language

The purposes of an official translation are to certify facts in a legal or administrative process/court case; to have legal facts originating in a foreign country recognised and to apply the source law to foreign citizens (Private International Law).

Official translation services are organised differently in the Member States of the European Union with very different professional frameworks (heterogeneous systems and practices). For instance, in the United Kingdom and Ireland the profession is not regulated, whereas  in civil law countries such as Spain or Greece the profession of sworn translator is subject to different access rules and performed under different working conditions regarding statutes, fee payment or certification).

What is a legal translator?

A translator produces a written document by translating a text from one language into another language. A legal translator must master the basic concepts and terminology of not just law, but also the area to which it is being applied. Legal translation is at the heart of multilingual communication as it enables individuals, companies, legal and government agencies to communicate across different languages and cultures within and across state borders. Legal translation requires knowledge of specialist terminology and knowledge of the linguistic conventions that are used in related documents. Being part of the legal team and by having access to legal experts, the legal translator will enable your full understanding of any particular case and the required legal terminology. His/her understanding of the legal system or systems and the legal processes involved will ensure that the legal translator can assist you in your legal actions.

Professional standards concerning linguistic competence, translation skills, and knowledge of systems, processes, terminology and linguistic conventions which apply in particular cases will be very important when you are looking for a legal translator.

What is a legal interpreter?

An interpreter provides an oral language service, using various modes to interpret from one language into another language (simultaneous, consecutive, or whispered interpretation). Legal Interpreters are specialists who work primarily with lawyers on legal cases such as trials, depositions, hearings, mediations, arbitrations, client meetings, etc. These experts will help you to communicate with other parties when you are involved in cross-border proceedings.

Court translator/interpreter

Court translators/interpreters are authorised to translate official documents (marriage certificates, school certificates, university diplomas, court submissions, judgments, etc.), as well as to interpret in court (e.g. when parties or witnesses give evidence), at police stations (during interviews, after an arrest) or before administrative authorities (such as during customs inspections). Official court translators/interpreters are authorized to affix an official stamp to their translations to certify the translation.

Court translators/interpreters should typically have a university education in their working language(s) and have mastered various translating and interpreting skills, although requirements vary from one Member State to another.

Most EU Member States have a system to select and appoint court translators/interpreters. Usually, a sworn translator is also qualified to work as a court interpreter. Different countries use different official designations to refer to court translators/interpreters.

How can I find translators/interpreters?

Finding a legal translator or an interpreter is currently possible by accessing national databases of translators and/or interpreters.  However, such databases do not exist in all Member States. Occasionally, the websites of Ministries of Justice or higher regional courts will have a link to official or semi-official registers of qualified translators/interpreters.

In criminal matters, Member States have been required under Directive 2010/64/EU to endeavour to establish such a register by 27 October 2013, the deadline set for the transposition of the Directive into national law. Under this Directive, Member States have to put in place a procedure or mechanism to ascertain whether suspected or accused persons need the assistance of an interpreter and of a translator, and it is for the Member States to provide suspects or accused with interpretation without delay. Translation should be provided for documents which are essential to safeguard the exercise of the right of defence and, exceptionally, an oral translation or an oral summary of those essential documents may be provided on condition that the fairness of the proceedings is not prejudiced. Member States shall meet the costs of interpretation and translation, irrespective of the outcome of the proceedings.

To obtain more detailed information, for instance on:

  • the body hosting the relevant national database,
  • the rules applying for recourse to translators and interpreters,
  • geographical areas of responsibility of translators and interpreters,
  • training/qualifications of translators and interpreters,
  • costs,
  • insurance systems and existence of complaints procedures,

please select one of the flags listed on the right hand side.

Last update: 24/01/2019

This page is maintained by the European Commission. The information on this page does not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Commission. The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice with regard to copyright rules for European pages.

Jekk jogħġbok innota li l-verżjoni bil-lingwa oriġinali ta' din il-paġna il-Franċiż ġiet emendata reċentement. Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Belgium

This section provides information on finding an interpreter able to provide a service in judicial proceedings or a translator, as appropriate, via an official Internet site.

How to find a translator in Belgium

There is currently no centralised official database of interpreters and translators in Belgium. There are, however, lists of sworn translators kept up to date by the Link opens in new windowregistrars of the various courts.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowFederal Public Service Justice

Last update: 27/04/2015

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Bulgaria

Bulgaria does not have a translator and interpreter database.

At present, there is no established electronic database of judicial interpreters. However, interpreters can participate in court proceedings as experts. The status of the experts is set out In Regulation No 1 of 16th January 2008 on the Registration, Qualification and Remuneration of Experts (issued by the Supreme Judicial Council, Prom. SG 11/5 February 2008). At each court, there is a list of the people who can participate as experts in court proceedings (including translators and interpreters).

Proposals for the inclusion of specialists (including translators and interpreters) on the lists of experts can be made by:

  • Ministries
  • Departments
  • Institutions
  • Municipalities
  • Professional and other organisations, and
  • Scientific institutions.

They can be addressed to the chairperson of the relevant district or administrative court.

Last update: 17/12/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Czech Republic

This section helps you to find a legal interpreter in the Czech Republic

What does the Czech experts and interpreters' database offer?

In the Czech experts and interpreters' database you may search for persons listed as experts and interpreters – i.e. persons authorised to carry out expert and interpreting activities. Lists of experts and interpreters kept by individual regional courts are divided into a section for experts and one for interpreters. Each interpreter on the list of experts and interpreters is authorised to provide oral interpretation and written translations in the relevant language under which he or she is listed.

Link opens in new windowThe Czech experts and interpreters' database is owned and maintained by the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice of the Czech Republic. However, the relevant regional courts are responsible for the correctness of the data.

Is access to the Czech experts and interpreters' database free of charge?

Access to the database is free of charge.

How to search for a legal interpreter in the Czech experts and interpreters' database

Using the simple search engine provided, you can search for the contact (or other) details of experts and interpreters online. Interpreters can be searched for by the languages in which they are authorised to interpret, by the regional court area of jurisdiction in which they live or by name and surname.

Last update: 09/07/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Denmark

Denmark does not maintain a translator/ interpreter database which is accessible to the public.

Last update: 24/10/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Germany

This page helps you to find a legal translator and interpreter in Germany.

How to find a legal translator or interpreter in Germany

The standard German database of translators and interpreters lists all of the translators and interpreters that are officially sworn, certified and/or working in a public service capacity across the federal states (Länder) of Germany.

Each of the German Länder determines the criteria for translators and interpreters to be officially sworn, or certified, or work in a public service capacity, so there are specific requirements specific to each Land.

Is access to the German database of translators and interpreters free of charge?

Yes.

How to search for a legal translator or interpreter in Germany

It is possible to search for specific interpreters and translators via one or more of the following search criteria: name, postcode/municipality, language. If you select a specific entry from the search results, further details (e.g. translator/interpreter’s working languages and contact details) will be displayed.

Related links

Link opens in new windowDatabase of legal interpreters (justiz-dolmetscher.de)

Link opens in new windowDatabase of legal translators (justiz-uebersetzer.de)

Link opens in new windowDatabase of court interpreters (gerichts-dolmetscher.de)

Link opens in new windowDatabase of court translators (gerichts-uebersetzer.de)

Link opens in new windowCourt interpreter portal (gerichtsdolmetscherverzeichnis.de)

Link opens in new windowCourt translator portal (gerichts-uebersetzer.de)

Last update: 29/08/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Estonia

This section helps you find a legal translator or interpreter in Estonia.

How to find a legal translator in Estonia

The Link opens in new windowEstonian register of sworn translators provides information on sworn translators and their contact details.

The register is owned and maintained by the Estonian Ministry of Justice.

Is access to the register of translators free of charge?

Yes, access to the register is free of charge.

How to search for a legal translator

There is no special way of searching for translators. The Ministry of Justice website gives a list of translation languages to choose from. Once you have chosen the language you require, you will be directed to the names and contact details of translators qualified to translate to and from that language.

Last update: 13/08/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Ireland

Ireland does not have a legal translator or interpreter database.

Last update: 18/11/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Greece

Greece has no website offering a list of legal translators or interpreters. We are in the process of designing the digitisation of our databases and their electronic interface.

How to find a legal translator or interpreter in Greece

Interpretation and translation before the Greek courts are governed by Articles 233 – 238 of the Greek Code of Criminal Procedure. Interpreters and translators are appointed by the competent court from the relevant table which is drawn up each year by the First-Instance Judicial Court and finalised by the Court of Appeals. In cases of extreme urgency, interpreters who are not included in the above tables shall be appointed.

For civil proceedings, Article 252 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides that if a witness, expert or party does not speak Greek, an interpreter shall be appointed by the court. A similar provision is contained in Article 137 of the Code of Administrative Procedure.

It should also be noted that there is a Link opens in new windowtranslation service at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which, according to the current legal framework, is responsible for the official translation of public and private documents.

Foreign public documents are translated only if they bear an apostille, for documents from countries that are party to the 1961 Hague Convention, ratified in Greece by Law 1497/1984 (Government Gazette, Series I, No 188).  All other foreign documents must be certified by the Greek consular authority in the country of origin of the document or by the country’s consular authority in Greece.

Translation is not free of charge. The cost is established by the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs.

In addition, according to the Lawyers Code (Article 36 Law No 4194/2013 Government Gazette, Series I, No 208) the work of a lawyer includes the translation of documents drafted in a foreign language and the translation of Greek documents into any foreign language. The translation has full effect before any court or other authority, provided it is accompanied by a certified copy of the document translated and the lawyer certifies that they have adequate knowledge of the language it was translated from and into.

Is access to the translators' databases free of charge?

Greece does not have a centralised database of Greek legal translators/interpreters.

However, there is a database of members of the Link opens in new windowPanhellenic Association of Translators (members of the International Federation of Translators - FIT) who are professional translators (some of whom are also interpreters). This database allows users to search for an interpreter/translator by language and region.

Furthermore, data on professional translators, for each region of Greece can be found in the database of the Link opens in new windowPanhellenic Association of Professional Translators Graduates of the Ionian University (members of FIT), the members of which specialise in two of three languages: English, French and German (information on the language specialisations of Association members may be obtained from the Association).

How to search for a legal translator in Greece

See above

Related Links

Last update: 03/07/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Spain

This section helps you find an interpreter or legal translator in Spain

How to find an interpreter or legal translator in Spain

In Spain there is no comprehensive regulation of sworn interpreters and translators.

Article 231.5 of the Organic Law on the Judiciary specifies that 'In oral proceedings any person who speaks the language used and who has previously sworn or promised to translate accurately may be appointed as interpreter.'

Article 440 of the Criminal Procedure Code lays down the right to be aided by an interpreter, and Article 441 states that 'The interpreter shall be selected from persons qualified as such, if there are any in the locality. Where there are none, a teacher of the appropriate language shall be appointed, and if there is none, any person who speaks the language.'

Article 762.8 of the Criminal Procedure Code states that 'If the accused or witnesses do not understand or speak Spanish, the applicable procedure shall be that laid down in Articles 398, 440 and 441. The interpreter does not need to have an official qualification.'

As a general rule, in civil and criminal cases with legal aid the Ministry of Justice (or the Autonomous Communities with powers in the field of justice) pays the translator or interpreter, while in civil proceedings without legal aid the claimant bears the expenses of the translator or interpreter. Interpreters are also used in certain administrative law proceedings, such as requests for asylum.

To qualify as a sworn translator or interpreter it is necessary to pass the examination organised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Holders of this qualification are authorised to make official translations.

Is access to the database of translators in Spain free of charge?

There is no database in Spain with information on interpreters and translators.

How to find a legal translator in Spain

However, the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation publishes a list of the persons who have passed the examinations for sworn interpreters.

The list can be consulted free of charge and contains an alphabetical list of languages and the sworn translators in each language.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowLIST OF SWORN TRANSLATORS

Last update: 12/03/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Jekk jogħġbok innota li l-verżjoni bil-lingwa oriġinali ta' din il-paġna il-Franċiż ġiet emendata reċentement. Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - France

In this section you will find information about how to find an interpreter for court proceedings, or a translator, where necessary, via an official website.

How to find a translator in France

The documentation and analysis service at the Link opens in new windowCourt of Cassation publishes the following on its Internet site:

  • A PDF list of Link opens in new windowexperts certified by the Court of Cassation. There are also links to the Internet sites of some courts of appeal. The list of experts certified by the Court of Cassation is drawn up annually by the management panel (bureau) of the Court.
  • Link opens in new windowLists of court experts drawn up by the courts of appeal, including experts listed under the headings of translation and interpretation. The lists of court experts drafted by the courts of appeal are updated by the courts of appeal and sent to the Court of Cassation at varying intervals.

The Court of Cassation does not, strictly speaking, have a database listing all interpreters and translators.

Lists giving experts’ names, contact details, dates of birth and specialities are available for 35 courts of appeal.

Do you have to pay to search for a translator or interpreter?

No, access to the websites is unrestricted.

Directories of court translators in France

Background

The first official lists of experts advising the French courts were introduced for criminal cases by an Act of 30 November 1892.

There were also unofficial lists of people with technical knowledge who were most often designated in civil cases.

Act (loi) No 71-498 of 29 June 1971 and Order (décret) No 74-1184 of 31 December 1974 introduced a single list for each of the courts of appeal in the ordinary court system, for both civil and criminal cases, with experts being listed by speciality. The list was to be updated and amended each year. Registration was renewable on a yearly basis, but in practice it has been carried over for experts who have not incurred any serious criticism. A national list of experts was also introduced, which is drawn up by the management panel of the Court of Cassation and run along similar lines.

Registration

Registration on the lists of court experts was thoroughly reformed by Act No 2004-130 of 11 February 2004 and Order No 2004-1463 of 23 December 2004. Applications for registration on the lists of the courts of appeal have to be submitted to the State Counsel (procureur de la République) at the regional court (tribunal de grande instance), who examines them and then refers them to the Principal State Counsel (procureur général), who submits them to the first president of the court of appeal.

These lists are finalised annually by the general meeting of adjudicating judges (assemblée générale des magistrats du siège) at the court of appeal.

Initial registration on the lists of the courts of appeal is for a probationary period of three years, at the end of which an assessment is made of the person’s experience and whether they have the legal knowledge they need to carry out their tasks properly, with a view to a fresh application and fresh registration. The applicant’s file is reconsidered, and an opinion is given by a committee of experts and judges, after which the expert may be re‑registered for a period of five years.

Order No 2012-1451 of 24 December 2012 clarified the criteria for registration. Applications are to be considered in the light of the qualifications and professional experience of the applicant, which may have been acquired in an EU Member State other than France, and of the interest shown by the applicant in working with the justice system. Account may also be taken of the particular needs of the court.

Experts must have been registered on a court of appeal list for three years before they can be transferred to the national list. Applications for registration or re-registration on the national list are submitted to the Principal State Counsel at the Court of Cassation, who consults the first president and the Principal State Counsel at the court of appeal where the applicant is registered. The management panel (bureau) of the Court of Cassation then finalises the national list; the Principal State Counsel’s Office does not intervene.

The headings in the lists of experts

An order (arrêté) of the Minister for Justice of 10 June 2005 establishes a harmonised nomenclature for the headings in lists of court experts throughout the country. The list is divided into branches (branches, which are economic sectors such as agriculture, health or industry), headings (rubriques, for professional disciplines such as medicine or surgery), and specialities (spécialités, refining the professional disciplines, such as allergology, digestive surgery, etc.). One of the branches is ‘Interpreting and translation’ (Interprétariat - traduction), which has a heading for translation that is subdivided into specialities by groups of languages (Romance languages, Germanic languages, Slavonic languages, etc). The specialities are defined widely enough to include any spoken or written language.

For this new harmonised nomenclature of expert specialities, therefore, translators and interpreters have been kept on the general lists of court experts, while having their own specific heading. Translators and interpreters do not have it as their main task to give expert opinions in the strict sense, but like other court experts they do assist the courts on an occasional basis, and where necessary they may be designated as technical specialists to take part in the inquiry itself, under Article 232 of the new Code of Civil Procedure, for example by providing a professional opinion.

For these reasons, it was not considered necessary, at the time of the 2004 reform, to make separate arrangements for interpreters and translators and to register them on separate lists.

Last update: 16/09/2013

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Italy

Italy has no national database of translators or interpreters. This is to give the Italian judiciary the freedom to choose translators and interpreters as they see fit.

Last update: 18/06/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Jekk jogħġbok innota li l-verżjoni bil-lingwa oriġinali ta' din il-paġna il-Grieg ġiet emendata reċentement. Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Cyprus

Translations are carried out with the help of outside translators listed with the Link opens in new windowPress and Information Office (Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών) and are certified by sworn translators.

The Link opens in new windowPress and Information Office (PIO) is a department of the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Interior (Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών). The purpose of the PIO is to provide continuous and objective information to the international media and the citizens of Cyprus on issues relating to Cyprus and the Cyprus Question, using all new forms of information technology, in the aim of successfully projecting the government and its work and providing global information to citizens on issues relating to the integration of Cyprus into the European Union. The PIO is also responsible for producing informative material such as leaflets, films and CDs.
Some PIO departments deal directly with and serve the public. One of these is the Link opens in new windowTranslation Department (Κλάδος Μεταφράσεων).

TRANSLATION DEPARTMENT

The Link opens in new windowTranslation Department of the PIO has been providing translation services since 1990, when it was set up by decision of the Ministerial Council in order to satisfy the demand for translations in both the private and public sectors.

Staff in the department always act in accordance with laws and regulations, without prejudice or discrimination, and make every possible effort to provide an immediate service.

CERTIFIED TRANSLATIONS

The Translation Department deals with translations of documents/texts which usually require official certification. Certified translations are offered in the following languages:

  • Greek
  • English
  • French
  • Russian
  • German
  • Italian
  • Arabic
  • Polish
  • Romanian
  • Serbian
  • Bulgarian
  • Hungarian
  • Dutch
  • Spanish
  • Chinese
  • Swedish
  • Czech
  • Slovakian
  • Turkish
  • Portuguese
  • Japanese
  • Armenian
  • Ukrainian
  • Albanian
  • Georgian and
  • Farsi

Translations are carried out with the help of outside translators listed with the Link opens in new windowPress and Information Office and are certified by sworn translators.

Documents requiring translation are divided into two categories, for which different prices are charged. Category Α documents are simple (non-specialised) documents and category B documents are specialised documents.

More information on prices for certified translations, time of acceptance and delivery, business hours etc. is available at Link opens in new windowInformation on Certified Translations.

INFORMATION/COMMENTS

Members of the public are entitled to request information and clarification on the services provided by the Translation Department.

They are also entitled to file written comments or complaints. The Translation Department replies to all signed letters within one month.

CONTACT

Contact numbers for translators:

  • +357 22801132,
  • +357 22801133,
  • +357 22801134,
  • +357 22801193.

Contact number for Head of Department: +357 22801131.

Press and Information Office (PIO)

Apelli Street

P.O. Box 1456, Nicosia, Cyprus

Τel.: +357 22801117, Fax: +357 22666123

e-mail: Link opens in new windowcommunications@pio.moi.gov.cy

Last update: 30/04/2015

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Latvia

The court provides for the right of the parties to civil or administrative proceedings who do not have a command of the language of the proceedings – with the exception of representatives of legal entities – to acquaint themselves with the materials of the case and participate in the proceedings with the aid of an interpreter.

The participants to proceedings are also free to choose independently translators and interpreters they deem suitable.

In criminal proceedings, persons who have a right of defence, victims and their representatives, witnesses, specialists, experts, auditors and other persons called upon to participate by the official conducting the proceedings, where such persons do not have a command of the official state language, are entitled during the procedural action to use a language they know and to engage an interpreter for assistance free of charge, the interpreter's services being provided for by the official conducting the proceedings.

Last update: 22/04/2013

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Lithuania

There is no database of translators or interpreters in Lithuania.

How to search for a legal translator in Lithuania

In court proceedings, a translator/interpreter will be provided by the court.

For your personal needs, private translators and interpreters can be found here:

Last update: 18/02/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Luxembourg

This section of the Portal allows you to find a legal translator or interpreter in Luxembourg.

How to find a legal translator or interpreter in Luxembourg

The Ministry of Justice has available an up-to-date coordinated list of sworn translators and interpreters. It can be consulted on the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice website and it also contains general information.

Is access to Luxembourg's translator database free of charge?

Access to Luxembourg's translator database is free of charge.

Related links

Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice

Last update: 20/12/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Hungary

Hungary does not have a central, electronic database of legal translators and court interpreters.

How can I find a Hungarian legal translator or interpreter?

Specialised translation or interpretation may be pursued as a form of employment or any other paid work only by qualified specialist translators or interpreters.

With the exceptions referred to below, certified translations and certification of translations and of copies of foreign language documents can be done by the Hungarian Office for Translation and Attestation (Országos Fordító és Fordításhitelesítő Iroda Zrt, ‘OFFI’).

Under the Notaries Act No XLI of 1991, notaries who are entitled to draw up documents in a foreign language may produce certified translations in that language of documents in cases falling within their notarial remit or certify translations of such documents. Notaries certify a translation of an original document by adding an attestation clause to the end of the translation.

Diplomatic missions, including consular departments, may perform translation, foreign-language document copying and certification activities as provided for by law and international treaties.

Qualified specialist translators and specialist revisers may also make certified translations of extracts from the company register and authentic translations into any of the EU’s official languages (as chosen by the company) of company documents and data intended to be entered in the company register.

Interpreting services at courts, public prosecutor’s offices and law enforcement agencies based in Budapest are provided by OFFI. OFFI must also provide interpretation for courts, public prosecutor’s offices and law enforcement agencies outside Budapest that are unable to ensure the provision of interpreting services through the appointment of a qualified interpreter or other suitable person.

Link and contact details

Link opens in new windowHungarian Office for Translation and Attestation (OFFI)

Address: 1062 Budapest, Bajza utca 52.

Last update: 06/04/2017

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Malta

Malta now possesses a legal translators' and interpreters' database.

In criminal cases, a list of interpreters/translators is available to members of the judiciary and court personnel. This list is retained and maintained by the Criminal Court Registry. Recently this list has been added to the Court Services available online in preparation for the coming into force of the Directive on the Right to Legal Interpretation and Translation in Criminal Matters - Link opens in new windowhttp://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/courtservices/CourtExperts. In criminal cases when the services of an interpreter or of a translator are required, he or she is appointed by a magistrate. This list does not preclude a magistrate from ignoring the same list and appointing any other person he/she considers suitable to perform interpretation or translation duties. This person's name would subsequently be added to the said list. For further information, please write to the Criminal Court Registrar, Courts of Justice, Valletta, Malta.

In civil cases, the parties may appoint a translator or interpreter of their choice, and the cost of doing so is borne by the party who requires these services. The court administration has no involvement in this process. However, the civil courts may make use of the list available to the criminal courts, which list is now accessible to the public as explained here-above.

Malta’s informal list of translators and interpreters is also contained in the Courts’ Legal Case Management (LECAM) IT system, which system is generally for the sole use of court personnel and members of the legal profession although the public may access the LECAM system in respect of civil cases through the computers maintained at the court registries.

Additions to the experts' list are made by court officers authorised to maintain this database. Entries for individual experts are linked to the court case in respect of which they have been appointed to offer their professional services.

Last update: 20/01/2017

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Jekk jogħġbok innota li l-verżjoni bil-lingwa oriġinali ta' din il-paġna l-Olandiż ġiet emendata reċentement. Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Netherlands

This section provides you with a brief overview of the Dutch translators' database.

What does the Dutch translators' register offer?

The Link opens in new windowtranslators' register of the Netherlands is a database containing details of sworn translators and interpreters.

The register is owned and maintained by the Office of Sworn Translators and Interpreters.

Is access to the Dutch translators' register free of charge?

Yes, access is free of charge.

How to search for a legal translator in the Netherlands

The database can be searched by surname or language combination(s).

Related Links

Link opens in new windowDutch translators' database

Last update: 29/11/2012

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Austria

This section of the Portal allows you to find a legal translator and interpreter in Austria.

How to find a legal translator or interpreter in Austria

The Austrian Federal Ministry of Justice maintains a list (the Gerichstdolmetscherliste) of court interpreters who have shown that they satisfy certain legal requirements (such as the possession of adequate specialised knowledge) and who have taken an oath and been certified by the courts.

A Link opens in new windowdedicated webpage has been established for this purpose, which can be also accessed via the Link opens in new windowAustrian Justice homepage.

Since 2004 the webpage has provided access to:

  • a database of translators or interpreters, which can be searched using set criteria
  • legal information on translation and interpreting services.

Is access to the translator database free of charge?

The webpage is publicly available and access is free of charge.

How to search for a court translator in Austria

From the Link opens in new windowdedicated webpage translators or interpreters can be found using the following search criteria:

  • language, and
  • court district.

For specific searches, a Link opens in new windowsearch engine allows a full text search of the database. Results can additionally be restricted by language and by court district.

Related links

Link opens in new windowList of court translators and interpreters

Last update: 30/05/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Poland

This page helps you to find a Polish legal translator and interpreter.

What does the Polish translators' database offer?

Poland has:

  • A list of Link opens in new windowsworn translators and interpreters (tłumaczy przysięgłych), which is owned by the Polish Ministry of Justice
  • A database ofLink opens in new window translators and interpreters, managed by the Polish Association of Interpreters (Stowarzyszenie Tłumaczy Polskich)

Is access to the Polish translators' database free of charge?

Yes, access to both databases is free of charge.

How to search for a legal translator in Poland

Database of sworn translators

The sworn translators’ database allows you to search for a translator or interpreter by:

  • Family name
  • Type of translation
  • City
  • Language.

Database of translators and interpreters

You can search the translators' and interpreters' database by:

  • Family name
  • City
  • Language
  • Speciality (interpretation, translation of literature, legal translation).
Last update: 28/04/2015

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Portugal

Portugal does not have a database of legal translators or interpreters.

Last update: 08/08/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Romania

This page helps you find a legal translator and interpreter in Romania.

How to find a legal translator or interpreter in Romania

The Link opens in new windowdatabase of authorised Romanian translators and interpreters is owned and maintained by the Romanian Ministry of Justice. It contains information on translators and interpreters authorised by the Romanian Ministry of Justice.

These authorised persons provide translation and interpretation services upon request for:

  • the Superior Council of Magistracy
  • the Ministry of Justice
  • the High Court of Cassation and Justice
  • the Public Prosecution Service
  • the National Anticorruption Directorate
  • the criminal investigation authorities
  • the courts
  • notaries public
  • lawyers and
  • bailiffs.

Law No 178/1997 regulates the authorisation and payment of interpreters and translators who provide services to criminal investigation authorities, courts, notaries public, lawyers, the Ministry of Justice and the other institutions listed above.

The translators' database includes information from 2002 onwards.

Is access to the Romanian translators' database free of charge?

The following information is available to the public free of charge:

  • name of the authorised translator or interpreter,
  • language or languages for which the translator or interpreter is authorised,
  • authorisation number,
  • telephone number.

The database also contains the following information that is not publicly available:

  • personal identity number,
  • postal address.

How to search for an authorised translator in Romania

The database can be searched using the following criteria:

  1. the name of the authorised translator or interpreter;
  2. the name of the relevant court of appeal (each court of appeal bears the name of the municipality in which it is located. As there are 15 courts of appeal in Romania, each with territorial legal competence regarding judicial cases corresponding to specific national administrative areas, this search criterion can be used in practice to identify all translators within the geographical and administrative areas corresponding to the territorial legal competence of a specific court);
  3. language pairs (if a foreign language is displayed, the counterpart of the one displayed will be Romanian);
  4. the authorisation number;
  5. the expiry date of the authorisation (this search can be performed by typing 'Ordin' ('order' in English) – a legal instrument issued by the Ministry of Justice to suspend or revoke the translator’s authorisation).
Last update: 09/09/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Slovenia

This section provides you with an overview of the Slovenian translators' and interpreters' database.

What does the Slovenian translators' register offer?

The Ministry of Justice and Public Administration maintains a Link opens in new windowDirectory of Sworn Translators and Interpreters. The Slovenian legal system does not distinguish between interpreters and translators in judicial matters. All sworn persons must be capable of performing both interpretation and translation.

Is access to the Slovenian translator database free of charge?

Yes, access to the Slovenian translator database is free of charge.

How to search for a legal translator in Slovenia

It is possible to search the database for Link opens in new windowsworn translators and interpreters based on the following search criteria:

  • Name
  • Language
  • Postcode/town.

Related links

Link opens in new windowSworn translators or interpreters

Last update: 16/02/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Slovakia

This page provides you with a brief overview of the Slovakian translators' and interpreters' databases.

What does the database of Slovak translators offer?

The Slovak translator database provides information about 824 court translators and 901 court interpreters; it is available in Slovak only. Link opens in new windowThe translator database is maintained by the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice of the Slovak Republic.

Is access to Slovakia’s translator database free of charge?

The database provides free access to and retrieval of information about court translators and interpreters.

What is the method for searching for a court translator in Slovakia?

Information on court translators can be found in the Registers section on the website of the Link opens in new window Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic.

Related links

Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice

Link opens in new windowJASPI – legal information database

Last update: 18/03/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.
Jekk jogħġbok innota li dawn il-lingwi li ġejjin diġà ġew tradotti.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Finland

This section helps you to find a legal translator or interpreter in Finland.

What does the Finnish translators' database offer?

The database of the Link opens in new windowFinnish Association of Translators and Interpreters provides you with information about translators and interpreters.

Is access to the Finnish translator database free of charge?

Yes, access to the database of the Finnish Association of Translators and Interpreters is free of charge.

How to search for a legal translator in Finland

You can search for a Finnish legal translator or interpreter through the following criteria:

  • Language pairs
  • Name of translator or interpreter

Related Links

Link opens in new windowWebsite of the Association of Finnish Translators and Interpreters

Last update: 22/05/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Jekk jogħġbok innota li l-verżjoni bil-lingwa oriġinali ta' din il-paġna l-Isvediż ġiet emendata reċentement. Il-verżjoni tal-lingwa li qed tara bħalissa attwalment qed tiġi ppreparata mit-tradutturi tagħna.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Sweden

This section helps you find a legal translator or interpreter in Sweden.

What is the Swedish register of interpreters and translators?

The Link opens in new windowSwedish database of authorised interpreters and Link opens in new windowtranslators is owned and administered by the Link opens in new windowSwedish Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet).

It contains a list of certified interpreters and translators who are authorised only to interpret or translate from or into Swedish. An individual may be authorised for a number of different languages. An authorised interpreter may also be authorised to work in a particular area of expertise as a court interpreter and/or medical interpreter.

Is access to the Swedish register of interpreters and translators free of charge?

Yes, it costs nothing to access the Swedish database of authorised interpreters and translators.

How do you search for an authorised interpreter or translator in Sweden?

If you are looking for an interpreter, you can search by language, special area of expertise, county (län) or surname. If you are looking for a translator, you can search by language, county (län), surname or translator number.

Last update: 28/01/2013

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - England and Wales

This section helps you find a legal translator or interpreter in England and Wales

Currently, England and Wales do not have a centralised database of interpreters or translators. However, you can find more information on how to search for an interpreter or translator in a number of decentralised registers and lists, including:

Related Links

Link opens in new windowNational Register of Public Service Interpreters, Link opens in new windowAssociation of Police and Court Interpreters, Link opens in new windowInstitute of Translation and Interpreting, Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice Link opens in new windowcourt interpreters Link opens in new windowChartered Institute of Linguists

Last update: 25/11/2016

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Northern Ireland

This section helps you find a legal translator or interpreter in Northern Ireland.

Currently, Northern Ireland does not have a centralised database of interpreters or translators. However, you can search for what you need in a number of decentralised registers and lists, including:

Related Links

Link opens in new windowNational Register of Public Service Interpreters

Link opens in new windowAssociation of Police and Court Interpreters

Link opens in new windowInstitute of Translation and Interpreting

Last update: 16/01/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Find a legal translator or an interpreter - Scotland

Currently, Scotland does not have a single centralised database of interpreters or translators. However, you can search a number of decentralised registers and lists, including:

If you are seeking legal aid for assistance with interpretation and translation, the Link opens in new windowSLAB register is recommended.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowScottish Legal Aid Board
Link opens in new windowNational Register of Public Service Interpreters
Link opens in new windowAssociation of Police and Court Interpreters
Link opens in new windowInstitute of Translation and Interpreting

Last update: 24/04/2019

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.